Human Anatomy Metabolomics Project

Based on the Zhipu Qingyan ChatGLM large language model, PANOMIX conducted knowledge mining and summary of all available literature from 1800 to 2023. Combined with the sample test results of the PANOMIX R&D Laboratory, a distribution database of metabolites in medical human cells and medical human organs and tissues was established, which was provided to teachers engaged in medical research for reference. The complete human anatomical metabolome dataset can be obtained free of charge through email contact PANOMIX for academic cooperation.

Anatomy information is based on the Uber Anatomy Ontology project

Anatomy term Description
male germ cellsingle cell "A germ cell that supports male gamete production. In some species, non-germ cells known as Sertoli cells also play a role in spermatogenesis." [, PMID:29462262]
spermsingle cell "A mature male germ cell that develops from a spermatid." [GOC:tfm, MESH:D013094]
oocytesingle cell "A female germ cell that has entered meiosis." [GOC:tfm, ISBN:0721662544]
epithelial cell of pancreassingle cell "An epithelial cell of the pancreas." [GOC:tfm]
granulocytesingle cell "A leukocyte with abundant granules in the cytoplasm." [GOC:amm, GOC:tfm,, MESH:D006098]
endothelial cellsingle cell "An endothelial cell comprises the outermost layer or lining of anatomical structures and can be squamous or cuboidal. In mammals, endothelial cell has vimentin filaments and is derived from the mesoderm." [GOC:tfm,,, MESH:D042783, PMID:21275341]
type B pancreatic cellsingle cell "A cell that secretes insulin and is located towards the center of the islets of Langerhans." [GOC:tfm,, ISBN:0517223651]
monocytesingle cell "Myeloid mononuclear recirculating leukocyte that can act as a precursor of tissue macrophages, osteoclasts and some populations of tissue dendritic cells." [GO_REF:0000031, MESH:D009000]
secondary oocytesingle cell "A secondary oocyte is an oocyte that has not completed meiosis II." [GOC:tfm, ISBN:0721662544]
leukocytesingle cell "An achromatic cell of the myeloid or lymphoid lineages capable of ameboid movement, found in blood or other tissue." [GOC:add, GOC:tfm, ISBN:978-0-323-05290-0]
mononuclear cellsingle cell "A leukocyte with a single non-segmented nucleus in the mature form." [GOC:add]
pancreatic ductal cellsingle cell "Epithelial cell found in the ducts of the pancreas. This cell type contributes to the high luminal pH." [FMA:63099, GOC:tfm, PMID:14740223]
bone marrow cellsingle cell "A cell found in the bone marrow. This can include fibroblasts, macrophages, adipocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells." [GOC:tfm, ISBN:0618947256]
stromal cell of endometriumsingle cell "A stromal cell of the endometrium that is fibroblastic in appearance. During decidualization this cell may differentiate into a decidual stromal cell." [, PMID:11331626, PMID:30013421, PMID:30309298, Wiki:Decidualization&oldid=908981933#Endometrial_stromal_cells_(ESCs)]
bronchial epithelial cellsingle cell "An epithelial cell of the bronchus." [GOC:tfm]
buccal mucosa cellsingle cell "An endothelial cell that lines the oral cavitiy including the mucosa of the gums, the palate, the lip, and the cheek." [GOC:tfm, MESH:D009061]
uterine cervix "Lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina." [, Wikipedia:Cervix]
islet of Langerhans "The clusters of hormone-producing cells that are scattered throughout the pancreas." [MA:0000127, MESH:A03.734.414, MP:0005215]
pituitary gland "The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland that secretes hormones that regulate many other glands [GO]. An endocrine gland located ventral to the diencephalon and derived from mixed neuroectodermal and non neuroectodermal origin [ZFIN]." [Wikipedia:Pituitary_gland, ZFIN:curator]
peripheral nervous system "A major division of the nervous system that contains nerves which connect the central nervous system (CNS) with sensory organs, other organs, muscles, blood vessels and glands." [GO:0007422]
zone of skin "Any portion of the organ that covers that body and consists of a layer of epidermis and a layer of dermis." [, Wikipedia:Skin]
lymph node "Any of the rounded masses of lymphoid tissue that are surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue, are distributed along the lymphatic vessels, and contain numerous lymphocytes which filter the flow of lymph." [BTO:0000784]
tendon "Dense regular connective tissue that connects muscle to bone[VSAO]." [GO_REF:0000034,, VSAO:0000073, Wikipedia:Tendon]
dorsal root ganglion "Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain. (MSH) * ganglion found on the posterior root of each spinal nerve, composed of the unipolar nerve cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the nerve. (CSP)." [BIRNLEX:2596]
urethra "The fibromuscular tubular canal through which urine is discharged from the bladder to the exterior via the external urinary meatus; in males, the urethra is joined by the ejaculatory ducts and serves as a passageway for semen during ejaculation, as well as a canal for urine during voiding; in females, the urethra is shorter and emerges above the vaginal opening." [MGI:anna, MP:0000537]
large intestine "A subdivision of the digestive tract that connects the small intestine to the cloaca or anus. Lacks or has few villi[Kardong]." [ISBN:0073040584, Wikipedia:Large_intestine_(anatomy)]
renal glomerulus "A capillary tuft which forms a close network with the visceral epithelium (podocytes) and the mesangium to form the filtration barrier and is surrounded by Bowman's capsule in nephrons of the vertebrate kidney[GO]." [MP:0005325, Wikipedia:Glomerulus]
metanephros "In mammals, the metanephros is the excretory organ of the fetus, which develops into the mature kidney and is formed from the rear portion of the nephrogenic cord. The metanephros is an endocrine and metabolic organ that filters the blood and excretes the end products of body metabolism in the form of urine[GO]." [GO:0001656, Wikipedia:Metanephros#Metanephros]
adult mammalian kidney "A kidney at the most advanced stage of development in a mammal." [, Wikipedia:Kidney_development]
intestine "Segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine." [GOC:GO, Wikipedia:Intestine]
oral cavity "Anatomical cavity at the start of the digestive tract that that is enclosed by the mouth. The boundaries and contents vary depending on the species. In vertebrates, the boundaries are the oral opening, the cheeks, the palate and (if present) the palatoglossal arch - if this is not present then the mouth and pharynx form the oropharyngeal cavity. The buccal cavity contains the teeth, tongue and palate (when present)." [,, ISBN:0073040584]
amniotic fluid "Amniotic fluid is a bodily fluid consisting of watery liquid surrounding and cushioning a growing fetus within the amnion. It allows the fetus to move freely without the walls of the uterus being too tight against its body. Buoyancy is also provided. The composition of the fluid changes over the course of gestation. Initially, amniotic fluid is similar to maternal plasma, mainly water with electrolytes. As the fetus develops, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, phospholipids originating from the lungs, fetal cells, and urea are deposited in the fluid." [ENVO:02000021, MP:MP]
blood "A fluid that is composed of blood plasma and erythrocytes." [FMA:9670,,, Wikipedia:Blood]
breast "The upper ventral region of the torso of an organism." [Wikipedia:Breast]
colonic mucosa "Mucosa that is part of a colon. The mucosa of the colon is lined by a simple columnar epithelium with a thin brush border and numerous goblet cells." []
ileal mucosa "A mucosa that is part of a ileum [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
pharyngeal mucosa "A mucosa that is part of a pharynx [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
renal medulla "The inner portion of the kidney consisting of the renal pyramids." [ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MGI:smb, MP:0003014]
corpus striatum "The corpus striatum (striated body) is a compound structure consisting of the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus, which consists of the putamen and the globus pallidus[WP]." [Wikipedia:Corpus_striatum]
colonic epithelium "An epithelium that is part of a colon [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
jejunal mucosa "A mucosa that is part of a jejunum [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
sympathetic trunk "One of a a paired bundle of nerve fibers plus ganglia that run from the base of the skull to the coccyx." [, Wikipedia:Sympathetic_trunk]
prefrontal cortex "The anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain, lying in front of the motor and premotor areas.nnThis brain region has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behaviors, personality expression, decision making and moderating correct social behavior. The basic activity of this brain region is considered to be orchestration of thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals.nnThe most typical psychological term for functions carried out by the pre-frontal cortex area is executive function. Executive function relates to abilities to differentiate among conflicting thoughts, determine good and bad, better and best, same and different, future consequences of current activities, working toward a defined goal, prediction of outcomes, expectation based on actions, and social 'control' (the ability to suppress urges that, if not suppressed, could lead to socially-unacceptable outcomes).nnMany authors have indicated an integral link between a person's personality and the functions of the prefrontal cortex. - definition adapted from Wikipedia." [NLXANAT:090801]
endocervix "The region of the opening of the uterine cervix into the uterine cavity." [BTO:0003002]
material anatomical entity "Anatomical entity that has mass." []
anatomical system "Multicellular, connected anatomical structure that has multiple organs as parts and whose parts work together to achieve some shared function." [CARO:0000011]
multicellular organism "Anatomical structure that is an individual member of a species and consists of more than one cell." [CARO:0000012,, Wikipedia:Multi-cellular_organism]
testis "A gonad of a male animal. A gonad produces and releases sperm." []
female reproductive system "The organs and associated structures associated with bearing offspring in a female animal." [, MP:0001119, Wikipedia:Female_genitalia]
embryo "Anatomical entity that comprises the organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that are characterized by cleavage, the laying down of fundamental tissues, and the formation of primitive organs and organ systems. For example, for mammals, the process would begin with zygote formation and end with birth. For insects, the process would begin at zygote formation and end with larval hatching. For plant zygotic embryos, this would be from zygote formation to the end of seed dormancy. For plant vegetative embryos, this would be from the initial determination of the cell or group of cells to form an embryo until the point when the embryo becomes independent of the parent plant." [BTO:0000379, FB:FBrf0039741, FB:FBrf0041814, GO:0009790, Wikipedia:Embryo]
cranial nerve II "Cranial nerve fiber tract which is comprised of retinal ganglion cell axons running posterior medially towards the optic chiasm, at which some of the axons cross the midline and after which the structure is termed the optic tract. Transmits visual information from the retina to the brain[ZFA]." [ISBN:0471209627, ISBN:0471888893]
stomach "An expanded region of the vertebrate alimentary tract that serves as a food storage compartment and digestive organ. A stomach is lined, in whole or in part by a glandular epithelium." [, ISBN:0073040584, Wikipedia:Stomach]
aorta "The main trunk of the systemic arterial system that carries blood from the heart to all the organs and other structures of the body, bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation." [, ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MESH:A07.231.114.056, MP:0000272, Wikipedia:Aorta]
heart "A myogenic muscular circulatory organ found in the vertebrate cardiovascular system composed of chambers of cardiac muscle. It is the primary circulatory organ." [, Wikipedia:Heart]
brain "The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate, and most invertebrate, animals. Some primitive animals such as jellyfish and starfish have a decentralized nervous system without a brain, while sponges lack any nervous system at all. In vertebrates, the brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell[WP]." [, Wikipedia:Brain]
cerebral cortex "The thin layer of gray matter on the surface of the cerebral hemisphere that develops from the telencephalon. It consists of the neocortex (6 layered cortex or isocortex), the hippocampal formation and the olfactory cortex." [BIRNLEX:1494]
lens of camera-type eye "A transparent and refractive lens located posterior to the iris. The lens of camera-type eye refracts light to be focused on the retina." [, Wikipedia:Lens_(anatomy)]
retina "The retina is the innermost layer or coating at the back of the eyeball, which is sensitive to light and in which the optic nerve terminates." [Wikipedia:Retina, ZFIN:curator]
eye "An organ that detects light." []
pleura "The invaginated serous membrane that surrounds the lungs (the visceral portion) and lines the walls of the pleural cavity (parietal portion)." [, ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MP:0010820, UBERON:cjm, Wikipedia:Pulmonary_pleurae]
tibia "The major preaxial endochondral bone in the posterior zeugopod[Phenoscape]." [PHENOSCAPE:mah]
pons "The part of the central nervous system lying between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain, ventral to the cerebellum." [VHOG:0001176]
penis "An intromittent organ in certain biologically male organisms. In placental mammals, this also serves as the organ of urination." [, ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MP:0005187, Wikipedia:Penis]
ovary "The gonad of a female organism which contains germ cells." [ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MP:0001126, Wikipedia:Ovary]
uterus "The female muscular organ of gestation in which the developing embryo or fetus is nourished until birth." [MGI:csmith, MP:0001120]
vagina "A fibromuscular tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles[WP]." [, Wikipedia:Vagina]
mammalian vulva "External genital organs of the female mammal[WP]." [Wikipedia:Vulva]
seminal vesicle "Either of a pair of glandular pouches that lie one on either side of the male reproductive tract posterolateral to the urinary bladder and in the human male secrete a sugar- and protein-containing fluid into the ejaculatory duct." [BTO:0001234, Wikipedia:Seminal_vesicle]
skin epidermis "The outer epithelial layer of the skin that is superficial to the dermis." [, ISBN:0073040584]
adipose tissue "Portion of connective tissue composed of adipocytes enmeshed in areolar tissue." [, MESH:A10.165.114, MGI:cwg, MP:0000003, Wikipedia:Adipose_tissue]
central nervous system "The central nervous system is the core nervous system that serves an integrating and coordinating function. In vertebrates it consists of the neural tube derivatives: the brain and spinal cord. In invertebrates it includes central ganglia plus nerve cord." [GO:0021551,,]
nerve "An enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system originating in a nerve root in the central nervous system (or a condensed nervous structure) connecting with peripheral structures." [FBbt:00005105,]
esophagus "Tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. In mammals, the oesophagus connects the buccal cavity with the stomach. The stratified squamous non-keratinised epithelium lining the buccal cavity is continued through the pharynx down into the oesophagus. The lowest part of the oesophagus (ca. 2 cm) is lined with gastric mucosa and covered by peritoneum. The main body of the oesophagus is lined with small, simple mucous glands. Each gland opens into the lumen by a long duct which pierces the muscularis mucosae (Wilson and Washington, 1989). A sphincter is situated at the point where the oesophagus enters the stomach to prevent gastro-oesophageal reflux, i.e. to prevent acidic gastric contents from reaching stratified epithelia of the oesophagus, where they can cause inflammation and irritation (Wilson and Washington, 1989; Brown et al., 1993)." [, Wikipedia:Esophagus]
saliva-secreting gland "Saliva-secreting exocrine glands of the oral cavity[GO]." [GO:0007431, Wikipedia:Salivary_gland]
hypopharynx "Bottom part of the pharynx that connects to the esophagus." [Wikipedia:Hypopharynx]
rectum "The terminal portion of the intestinal tube, terminating with the anus." [, ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MP:0000492]
diaphragm "A thin musculomebranous barrier that separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities. Often used for breathing control." [MP:0002279]
right lobe of liver "The right lobe is much larger than the left; the proportion between them being as six to one. It occupies the right hypochondrium, and is separated from the left lobe on its upper surface by the falciform ligament; on its under and posterior surfaces by the left sagittal fossa; and in front by the umbilical notch. It is of a somewhat quadrilateral form, its under and posterior surfaces being marked by three fossæ: the porta and the fossæ for the gall-bladder and inferior vena cava, which separate its left part into two smaller lobes; the quadrate and caudate lobes. [WP,unvetted]." [Wikipedia:Right_lobe_of_liver]
right lobe of thyroid gland "A lobe of thyroid gland that is in the right side of a thyroid gland." [OBOL:automatic]
left lobe of thyroid gland "A lobe of thyroid gland that is in the left side of a thyroid gland." [OBOL:automatic]
skeletal muscle tissue "Muscle tissue that consists primarily of skeletal muscle fibers." []
smooth muscle tissue "Muscle tissue which is unstriated, composed primarily of smooth muscle fibers surrounded by a reticulum of collagen and elastic fibers. Smooth muscle differs from striated muscle in the much higher actin/myosin ratio, the absence of conspicuous sarcomeres and the ability to contract to a much smaller fraction of its resting length[GO]." [GO:0006939, Wikipedia:Smooth_muscle_tissue]
body of pancreas "The body of the pancreas is a subsection of the pancreas organ in the human body. It is somewhat prismatic in shape, and has three surfaces: anterior, posterior, and inferior. It is at the same level as the transpyloric plane. [WP,unvetted]." [Wikipedia:Body_of_pancreas]
caecum "A pouch in the digestive tract that connects the ileum with the ascending colon of the large intestine. It is separated from the ileum by the ileocecal valve, and is the beginning of the large intestine. It is also separated from the colon by the cecocolic junction." [Wikipedia:Cecum]
vermiform appendix "A blind-ended tube connected to the cecum, from which it develops embryologically[WP]." [, Wikipedia:Vermiform_appendix]
colon "A portion of the large intestine before it becomes the rectum. In mammals, the colon is the most part of the large intestine, excluding the vermiform appendix, the rectum and the anal canal." [,, Wikipedia:Colon_(anatomy), ZFIN:curator]
transverse colon "The proximal-distal subdivision of colon that runs transversely across the upper part of the abdomen, from the right to the left colic flexure. Continuous with the descending colon[BTO,modified]." [BTO:0000272, Wikipedia:Transverse_colon]
sigmoid colon "The part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus. It forms a loop that averages about 40 cm. in length, and normally lies within the pelvis, but on account of its freedom of movement it is liable to be displaced into the abdominal cavity." [Wikipedia:Sigmoid_colon]
fundus of stomach "The fundus is the portion of the stomach that lies above the cardiac notch, and contains the fundic glands[GO, Kardong]." [GO:0014825, ISBN:0073040584, Wikipedia:Fundus_(stomach)]
body of stomach "The body of stomach is the part of the stomach that lies between the fundus above and the pyloric antrum below; its boundaries are poorly defined[GO]." [GO:0014845, Wikipedia:Body_of_stomach]
cardia of stomach "The part of the stomach attached to the esophagus. The cardia begins immediately distal to the z-line of the gastroeosphageal junction, where the squamous epithelium of the esophagus gives way to the columnar epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract[WP]." [BTO:0000198, Wikipedia:Cardia]
pylorus "The stomach tissue region surrounding and controlling the distal outlet of the stomach, which opens into the duodenum." [MGI:csmith, MP:0010785]
mucosa of stomach "The mucosal layer that lines the stomach." []
cortex of kidney "Outer cortical portion of the kidney, between the renal capsule and the renal medulla." [Wikipedia:Renal_cortex]
nephron tubule "An epithelial tube that is part of the nephron, the functional part of the kidney." [GO:0072078, Wikipedia:Renal_tubule]
right adrenal gland "An adrenal gland that is in the right side of the abdomen." [OBOL:automatic]
left adrenal gland "An adrenal gland that is in the left side of the abdomen." [OBOL:automatic]
adrenal cortex "The thick outer layer of the adrenal gland that produces and secretes steroid hormones such as corticosterone, estrone and aldosterone." [ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MGI:llw2, MP:0008288]
urinary bladder "Distensible musculomembranous organ situated in the anterior part of the pelvic cavity in which urine collects before excretion[MP]." [MGI:anna, Wikipedia:Urinary_bladder]
mucosa of urinary bladder "The mucous membrane lining the urinary bladder." [MGI:anna, MP:0011766]
pancreas "An endoderm derived structure that produces precursors of digestive enzymes and blood glucose regulating hormones[GO]." [GO:0031016]
proximal convoluted tubule "The proximal convoluted tubule is the most proximal portion of the proximal tubule and extends from the glomerular capsule to the proximal straight tubule." [GO:0072019]
endometrium "The glandular mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the estrous/menstrual cycle and during pregnancy." [MESH:A05.360.319.679.490, MGI:smb, MP:0004896]
myometrium "The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ and surrounds and supports the endometrium." [MESH:A02.633.570.500, MGI:brs, MP:0008256]
epididymis "The elongated structure connected to the posterior surface of the testis that transports, stores, and matures spermatozoa between testis and vas deferens." [MGI:pvb, MP:0002631]
right uterine tube "A fallopian tube that is part of a right side of organism [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
left uterine tube "A fallopian tube that is part of a left side of organism [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
germinal epithelium of ovary "Layer of simple cuboidal cells covering surface of ovary[WP]." [PMID:16923182, Wikipedia:Germinal_epithelium_(female), Wikipedia:Talk\:Germinal_epithelium_(female)]
tibial nerve "The tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus. In the popliteal fossa the nerve gives off branches to gastrocnemius, popliteus, soleus and plantaris muscles, an articular branch to the knee joint, and a cutaneous branch that will become the sural nerve. The sural nerve is joined by fibres from the common peroneal nerve and runs down the calf to supply the lateral side of the foot. Below the soleus muscle the nerve lies close to the tibia and supplies the tibialis posterior, the flexor digitorum longus and the flexor hallucis longus. The nerve passes into the foot running posterior to the medial malleolus. Here it is bound down by the flexor retinaculum in company with the posterior tibial artery. [WP,unvetted]." [Wikipedia:Tibial_nerve]
quadriceps femoris "One of the muscles belong to the group consisting of the rectus femoris and the three heads of the vastus (lateralis, medialis, intermedius)." [ISBN:0073040584]
vastus lateralis "The Vastus lateralis (Vastus externus) is the largest part of the Quadriceps femoris. It arises by a broad aponeurosis, which is attached to the upper part of the intertrochanteric line, to the anterior and inferior borders of the greater trochanter, to the lateral lip of the gluteal tuberosity, and to the upper half of the lateral lip of the linea aspera; this aponeurosis covers the upper three-fourths of the muscle, and from its deep surface many fibers take origin. A few additional fibers arise from the tendon of the Glutæus maximus, and from the lateral intermuscular septum between the Vastus lateralis and short head of the Biceps femoris. The fibers form a large fleshy mass, which is attached to a strong aponeurosis, placed on the deep surface of the lower part of the muscle: this aponeurosis becomes contracted and thickened into a flat tendon inserted into the lateral border of the patella, blending with the Quadriceps femoris tendon, and giving an expansion to the capsule of the knee-joint. [WP,unvetted]." [Wikipedia:Vastus_lateralis]
muscle of leg "A muscle that is part of the region of the hindlimb between the pelvis and ankle." [, Wikipedia:Leg_muscle]
tibialis anterior "A muscle that originates in the upper two-thirds of the lateral surface of the tibia and inserts into the medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of the foot. Its acts to invert the foot. It is situated on the lateral side of the tibia; it is thick and fleshy above, tendinous below. This muscle overlaps the anterior tibial vessels and deep peroneal nerve in the upper part of the leg. [WP,unvetted]. The M. tibialis cranialis is a muscle that flexes the tarsometatarsus. It originates on the craniodistal aspect of the femur and proximal tibiotarsus and inserts on the cranial surface of the tarsometarsus[EvoWiki]." [, Wikipedia:Tibialis_anterior_muscle]
gastrocnemius "The most superficial muscle of the triceps surae group, in the posterior portion of the lower hindleg." [, ISBN:0073040584, MP:0013188]
skin of abdomen "A zone of skin that is part of an abdomen [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
bone element "Skeletal element that is composed of bone tissue." [GO_REF:0000034,,, PSPUB:0000170, VSAO:0000057]
deltoid "A muscle of shoulder which attaches to the scapula, clavicle and humerus.[FMA,generalized]." [FMA:32521,]
ascending aorta "The ascending aorta is the portion of the aorta in a two-pass circulatory system that lies between the heart and the arch of aorta[GO]. A portion of the aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle, on a level with the lower border of the third costal cartilage behind the left half of the sternum; it passes obliquely upward, forward, and to the right, in the direction of the heart's axis, as high as the upper border of the second right costal cartilage, describing a slight curve in its course, and being situated, about 6 cm behind the posterior surface of the sternum. The total length is about 5 cm in length [Wikipedia]." [GO:0035905, Wikipedia:Ascending_aorta]
biceps brachii "A muscle in the forelimb stylopod which in humans has several functions, the most important being to rotate the forearm and to flex the elbow. [WP,unvetted]." [Wikipedia:Biceps_brachii_muscle]
triceps brachii "The triceps brachii muscle (Latin for 'three-headed' muscle of the arm, it is called a three headed muscle because there are three bundles of muscle, each of different origin, joining together at the elbow) is the large muscle on the back of the human upper limb. It is the muscle principally responsible for extension of the elbow joint (i.e. straightening of the arm). Though a similarly-named muscle, the triceps surae, is found on the lower leg, the triceps brachii is commonly called simply the 'triceps'. [WP,unvetted]." [Wikipedia:Triceps_brachii_muscle]
skin of leg "A zone of skin that is part of a leg [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
thoracic aorta "The part of the aorta that extends from the origin at the heart to the diaphragm, and from which arises numerous branches that supply oxygenated blood to the chest cage and the organs within the chest." [, MP:0010468]
skin of hip "A zone of skin that is part of a hip region." [, UBERONREF:0000003]
superficial temporal artery "A major artery of the head that arises from the external carotid artery when it bifurcates into the superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery. Its pulse is palpable superior to the zygomatic arch, anterior and superior to the tragus. [WP,unvetted]." [Wikipedia:Superficial_temporal_artery]
coronary artery "An artery that supplies the myocardium." [, Wikipedia:Coronary_circulation#Coronary_anatomy]
right coronary artery "Coronary artery which runs along the right side of the heart and predominantly supplies the mycocardium of the right side of the heart[Wikipedia,modified]." [, Wikipedia:Right_coronary_artery]
left coronary artery "Coronary artery which runs along the left side of the heart and predominantly supplies the mycocardium of the left side of the heart[Wikipedia,modified]." [, Wikipedia:Left_coronary_artery]
muscle organ "Organ consisting of a tissue made up of various elongated cells that are specialized to contract and thus to produce movement and mechanical work[GO]." [GO:0007517]
artery "An epithelial tube or tree of tibes that transports blood away from the heart[modified from AEO definition]." [AEO:JB]
vein "Any of the tubular branching vessels that carry blood from the capillaries toward the heart." [Wikipedia:Vein]
trigeminal ganglion "The cranial ganglion that is associated with and extends fibers into the trigeminal nerve." [,,]
ear "Sense organ in vertebrates that is specialized for the detection of sound, and the maintenance of balance. Includes the outer ear and middle ear, which collect and transmit sound waves; and the inner ear, which contains the organs of balance and (except in fish) hearing. Also includes the pinna, the visible part of the outer ear, present in some mammals." [GO:0042471, Wikipedia:Ear]
tongue "A muscular organ in the floor of the mouth." [FEED:rd,]
nasopharynx "The section of the pharynx that lies above the soft palate." [MGI:cwg, MP:0002251]
larynx "A continuation of the pharynx that is involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration." [, Wikipedia:Larynx]
mammary duct "Epithelial tube that transports milk[GO]." [GO:0060603, Wikipedia:Lactiferous_duct]
iris "The adjustable membrane, composed of the stroma and pigmented epithelium, located just in front of the crystalline lens within the eye." [ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MP:0001322]
optic choroid "Vascular layer containing connective tissue, of the eye lying between the retina and the sclera. The choroid provides oxygen and nourishment to the outer layers of the retina. Along with the ciliary body and iris, the choroid forms the uveal tract[WP]." [Wikipedia:Choroid]
pigmented layer of retina "A monolayer of pigmented epithelium covering the neural retina; develops from the outer of the two layers of the optic cup[ZFA]. the pigmented cell layer just outside the neurosensory retina that nourishes retinal visual cells, and is firmly attached to the underlying choroid and overlying retinal visual cells[WP]." [Wikipedia:Retinal_pigment_epithelium, ZFIN:curator]
fovea centralis "A depression in the inner retinal surface within the macula lutea, the photoreceptor layer of which is entirely cones and which is specialized for maximum visual acuity." [, Wikipedia:Fovea]
palpebral conjunctiva "A thin transparent mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and is continuous with the bulbar conjunctiva at the conjunctival fornicies." [MP:0013394]
lacrimal gland "The lacrimal glands are paired almond-shaped glands, located in or near the orbital region, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film.[WP]." [, Wikipedia:Lacrimal_gland]
nasal cavity mucosa "The mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity[MP]." [MP:0002238]
gingiva "The fibrous investing tissue, covered by keratinized epithelium, that immediately surrounds a tooth and is contiguous with its periodontal ligament and with the mucosal tissues of the mouth[Glossary of Periodontal Terms 2001]." [ISBN:0013002015, Wikipedia:Gingiva]
minor salivary gland "One of the smaller, largely mucus-secreting, exocrine glands of the oral cavity, consisting of the labial, buccal, molar, lingual, and palatine glands[MP]." [MP:0003791, Wikipedia:Salivary_gland#Minor_Salivary_Glands]
parotid gland "The parotid gland is the largest of the salivary glands. It is found wrapped around the mandibular ramus, and it secretes saliva through Stensen's duct into the oral cavity, to facilitate mastication and swallowing. [WP,unvetted]." [Wikipedia:Parotid_gland]
cochlea "The spiral-shaped bony canal in the inner ear containing the hair cells that transduce sound. Its core component is the Organ of Corti, the sensory organ of hearing, which is distributed along the partition separating fluid chambers in the coiled tapered tube of the cochlea. [WP,modified]." [ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MP:0000031, Wikipedia:Cochlea]
frontal cortex "Anterior portion of the neocortex, lying anterior to the central sulcus in humans. It is bounded by the parietal cortex posteriorly and the temporal cortex laterally[NIFSTD,modified]." [NLXANAT:20090601]
temporal lobe "Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere. (MSH)." [BIRNLEX:1160]
parietal lobe "Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. (MSH)." [BIRNLEX:1148]
caudate nucleus "Subcortical nucleus of telecephalic origin consisting of an elongated gray mass lying lateral to and bordering the lateral ventricle. It is divided into a head, body and tail in some species." [BIRNLEX:1373]
putamen "Subcortical nucleus of telencephalic , which together with the caudate nucleus, forms the striatum. The putamen lies lateral to the internal capsule and medial to the external medullary lamina, and is separated from the caudate nucleus by the fibers of the internal capsule for most of its length, except at its anterior portion." [BIRNLEX:809]
globus pallidus "Subcortical nucleus, functionally part of the basal ganglia, which consists of two segments the external (or lateral) and internal (or medial) separated by the medial medullary lamina in primates. In rodents, The globus pallidus lateral is separated from the medial segment by the fibers of the internal capsule/cerebral peduncle." [BIRNLEX:1234]
amygdala "Subcortical brain region lying anterior to the hippocampal formation in the temporal lobe and anterior to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle in some species. It is usually subdivided into several groups. Functionally, it is not considered a unitary structure (MM)." [BIRNLEX:1241]
nucleus accumbens "A region of the brain consisting of a collection of neurons located in the forebrain ventral to the caudate and putamen. (caudoputamen in rodent) and continuous with these structures. There is no distinct boundary between the nucleus accumbens and the caudate/putamen, but in rodents, it can be identified by its lack of traversing fiber bundles in comparison to the dorsal striatum. Its principle neuron is the medium spiny neuron. Together with the neostriatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), the nucleus accumbens forms the striatum." [BIRNLEX:727]
forebrain "The most anterior region of the brain including both the telencephalon and diencephalon." [Wikipedia:Forebrain, ZFIN:ZDB-PUB-961014-576]
midbrain "The midbrain is the middle division of the three primary divisions of the developing chordate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain (in vertebrates, includes a ventral part containing the cerebral peduncles and a dorsal tectum containing the corpora quadrigemina and that surrounds the aqueduct of Sylvius connecting the third and fourth ventricles)[GO]." [GO:0030901]
telencephalon "Part of the forebrain consisting of paired olfactory bulbs and cerebral hemispheres." [AAO:0010479, XAO:0000012]
medulla oblongata "Organ component of neuraxis that has as its parts the medullary reticular formation, inferior olivary complex and cochlear nuclear complex, among other structures[FMA]. The medulla oblongata lies directly above the spinal cord and controls vital autonomic functions such as digestion, breathing and the control of heart rate[GO]." [FMA:62004, GO:0021550, Wikipedia:Bone_marrow_of_ovary_oblongata]
dorsal plus ventral thalamus "Subcortical brain region consisting of paired gray matter bodies in the dorsal diencephalon and forming part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle of the brain. The thalamus represents the major portion of the diencephalon and is commonly divided into cellular aggregates known as nuclear groups.(MeSH). The dorsal topographic division of the interbrain. The macrodissected adult human thalamus was clearly illustrated by Vesalius in 1543 and the term as defined here was introduced by His in 1893. It includes the traditional epithalamus, dorsal thalamus, and ventral thalamus of Herrick (1910, pp. 494, 498). Also see Kuhlenbeck (1927, Ch. 9) and Jones (1985, p. 87)." [BIRNLEX:954]
hypothalamus "A specialized brain region of the ventral diencephalon arising near the end of the segmentation period; the embryonic hypothalamic region will give rise to the posterior pituitary gland as well as a number of brain nuclei. [ZFA]. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis).[Wikipedia]." [Wikipedia:Hypothalamus, ZFIN:curator]
pineal body "A midline, cone like structure located in the dorso-caudal roof of the 3rd ventricle, attached by peduncles to the habenular and posterior commissures. The stalk contains nerve fibers, blood vessels, connective tissue and parenchymal cells (Paxinos, The Rat Central Nervous System, 2nd ed, pg 399)." [BIRNLEX:1184]
subthalamic nucleus "The subthalamic nucleus is the lens-shaped nucleus located in the ventral part of the subthalamus on the inner aspect of the internal capsule that is concerned with the integration of somatic motor function[GO]." [GO:0021763]
mammary gland "A specialized accessory gland of the skin of mammals that secretes milk. The gland is typically only developed in females, and regresses in males." [BTO:0000817,, Wikipedia:Mammary_gland]
gingival epithelium "A stratified squamous epithelium consisting of a basal layer; it is keratinized or parakeratinized[BTO]." [BTO:0004998]
neocortex "An area of cerebral cortex defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture that have six layers. Starting from the cortical surface the layers are: molecular layer (I), external granular layer (II), external pyramidal layer (III), internal granular layer (IV), internal pyramidal layer (V), and multiform layer (VI). Neocortex is most prominent in the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe and the occipital lobe, less so in the cingulate gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus and the insula. It is composed of two subdivisions: true isocortex and proisocortex (Carpenter-83)(NN)." [BIRNLEX:2547, OldNeuroNames:754]
epithelium of nasopharynx "An epithelium that is part of a nasopharynx [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
Ammon's horn "A part of the brain consisting of a three layered cortex located in the forebrain bordering the medial surface of the lateral ventricle. The term hippocampus is often used synonymously with hippocampal formation which consists of the hippocampus proper or Cornu Ammonis, the dentate gyrus and the subiculum." [BIRNLEX:721]
substantia nigra pars compacta "Regional part of substantia nigra consisting of a densely packed region of cells, more or less dorsal to the pars reticulata, but extending into the pars reticulata in some species. The dominant neurotransmitter used by pars compacta neurons is dopamine. Pars compacta neurons are pigmented in many species (MM)." [BIRNLEX:990]
substantia nigra pars reticulata "Regional part of substantia nigra consisting of loosely packed cells, generally located ventral and lateral to the pars compacta. Many cells in this region use GABA as a neurotransmitter (MM)." [BIRNLEX:968]
epithelium of esophagus "The epithelial layer that lines the luminal space of the esophagus." [ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MP:0000468]
placenta "Organ of metabolic interchange between fetus and mother, partly of embryonic origin and partly of maternal origin[GO]. The fetal portion of the placenta is known as the villous chorion. The maternal portion is known as the decidua basalis. The two portions are held together by anchoring villi that are anchored to the decidua basalis by the cytotrophoblastic shell." [, Wikipedia:Placenta]
gluteal muscle "On of the muscles that make up the buttocks: the gluteus maximus muscle, gluteus medius muscle and gluteus minimus muscle." [Wikipedia:Gluteal_muscles]
synovial membrane of synovial joint "Soft tissue that lines the non-cartilaginous surfaces within joints with cavities (synovial joints)." [Wikipedia:Synovial_membrane]
occipital lobe "Posterior part of the cerebral hemisphere (MSH)." [BIRNLEX:1136]
nipple "Projection of skin containing the outlets for 15-20 lactiferous ducts arranged cylindrically around the tip." [FMA:67771, Wikipedia:Nipple]
epithelium of bronchus "An epithelium that is part of a bronchus [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
cerebellum "Part of the metencephalon that lies in the posterior cranial fossa behind the brain stem. It is concerned with the coordination of movement[MESH]. A large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum , and formed in humans of two lateral lobes and a median lobe[BTO]. Brain structure derived from the anterior hindbrain, and perhaps including posterior midbrain. The cerebellum plays a role in somatic motor function, the control of muscle tone, and balance[ZFA]." [BTO:0000232,, ISBN:3764351209, MESH:A08., ZFA:0000100]
substantia nigra "Predominantly gray matter midbrain structure lying dorsal to the crus cerebri and ventral to the midbrain tegmentum. It is divided into a dorsal, cellularly compact region known as the pars compacta and a more ventrally located, containing more loosely packed cells, the pars reticulata. The most lateral region of the reticulata is identified as the pars lateralis (MM)." [BIRNLEX:789]
thyroid gland "A two-lobed endocrine gland found in all vertebrates, located in front of and on either side of the trachea in humans, and producing various hormones, such as triiodothyronine and calcitonin[BTO]." [BTO:0001379, Wikipedia:Thyroid]
lung "Respiration organ that develops as an outpocketing of the esophagus." []
hair follicle "A tube-like opening in the epidermis where the hair shaft develops and into which the sebaceous glands open[GO]." [Wikipedia:Hair_follicle]
heart right ventricle "A cardiac ventricle that is in the right side of the heart." []
cardiac atrium "Cardiac chamber in which blood enters the heart." [, Wikipedia:Heart_atrium]
cardiac ventricle "Cardiac chamber through which blood leaves the heart." [, Wikipedia:Ventricle_(heart)]
heart left ventricle "A cardiac ventricle that is in the left side of the heart." []
brain dura mater "The fibrous membrane forming the outer of the three coverings that surrounds the brain within the cranial cavity; consists of two layers including the periosteal layer and the meningeal layer." [MP:0009025]
apex of heart "The apex of the heart is the lowest superficial part of the heart. It is directed downward, forward, and to the left, and is overlapped by the left lung and pleura. [WP,unvetted]." [Wikipedia:Apex_of_the_heart]
spleen "The organ that functions to filter blood and to store red corpuscles and platelets." [ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MP:0000689]
liver "An exocrine gland which secretes bile and functions in metabolism of protein and carbohydrate and fat, synthesizes substances involved in the clotting of the blood, synthesizes vitamin A, detoxifies poisonous substances, stores glycogen, and breaks down worn-out erythrocytes[GO]." [BTO:0000759, Wikipedia:Liver]
small intestine "Subdivision of digestive tract that connects the stomach to the large intestine and is where much of the digestion and absorption of food takes place (with the exception of ruminants). The mammalian small intestine is long and coiled and can be differentiated histologically into: duodenum, jejunem, ileum[WP,cjm,Kardong]." [ISBN:0073040584, Wikipedia:Small_intestine]
gallbladder "An organ that aids digestion and stores bile produced by the liver[WP]." [Wikipedia:Gallbladder]
kidney "A paired organ of the urinary tract that produces urine and maintains bodily fluid homeostasis, blood pressure, pH levels, red blood cell production and skeleton mineralization." [,, PMID:25140012, PMID:35003210, Wikipedia:Kidney]
duodenum "The first part of the small intestine. At the junction of the stomach and the duodenum the alimentary canal is inflected. The duodenum first goes anteriorly for a short distance, turns dorsally, and eventually caudally, thus it is a U-shaped structure with two horizontal sections (a ventral and a dorsal one)." [ISBN:0815318960, Wikipedia:Duodenum]
jejunum "The portion of the small intestine that extends from the duodenum to the ileum." [MGI:monikat, MP:0004002]
ileum "The portion of the small intestine that extends from the jejunum to the colon." [ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MGI:csmith, MP:0002581]
right ovary "An ovary that is part of a right side of organism [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
left ovary "An ovary that is part of a left side of organism [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
inferior olivary complex "Largest nucleus situated in the olivary body, part of the medulla oblongata. It is closely associated with the cerebellum, but its specific function is voluntary body movements." [Wikipedia:Inferior_olivary_nucleus]
cerebellar cortex "The superficial gray matter of the cerebellum. It consists of three main layers, the molecular layer, the Purkinje cell layer and the granule cell layer." [BIRNLEX:1566]
right lung "Lung which consists of the right upper lobe, middle lobe and right lower lobe.[FMA]." [FMA:FMA, Wikipedia:Right_lung]
bronchus "The upper conducting airways of the lung; these airways arise from the terminus of the trachea." [ISBN:0-397-51047-0, MESH:A04.411.125, MGI:cwg, MP:0002264]
subcutaneous adipose tissue "A portion of adipose tissue that is part of the hypodermis, beneath the dermis." []
adenohypophysis "The glandular, anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The anterior pituitary regulates several physiological processes including stress, growth, and reproduction[WP]. The anterior lobe of the hypophysis (pituitary gland). This lobe contains cells that produce prolactin, growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and proopiomelanocortin[ZFA]." [Wikipedia:Adenohypophysis, ZFIN:curator]
synovial joint "Joint in which the articulating bones or cartilages are connected by an articular capsule which encloses a synovial membrane and a synovial cavity. Examples: Temporomandibular joint, knee joint.[FMA]." [FMA:7501, Wikipedia:Synovial_joint]
spinal cord "Part of the central nervous system located in the vertebral canal continuous with and caudal to the brain; demarcated from brain by plane of foramen magnum. It is composed of an inner core of gray matter in which nerve cells predominate, and an outer layer of white matter in which myelinated nerve fibers predominate, and surrounds the central canal. (CUMBO)." [BIRNLEX:1709]
cerebellar hemisphere "A paired regions of the cerebellum that lie outside and lateral to the central vermis[MP]. The cerebellum consists of three parts, a median and two lateral, which are continuous with each other, and are substantially the same in structure. The median portion is constricted, and is called the vermis, from its annulated appearance which it owes to the transverse ridges and furrows upon it; the lateral expanded portions are named the hemispheres. The lateral hemisphere is considered the portion of the cerebellum to develop most recently. [WP,unvetted]." [MP:0009959, Wikipedia:Cerebellar_hemisphere]
popliteal artery "The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries." [MESH:A07.231.114.681]
olfactory bulb "A bulbous anterior projection of the olfactory lobe that is the place of termination of the olfactory nerves and is especially well developed in lower vertebrates (as fishes)[BTO]." [BTO:0000961, Wikipedia:Olfactory_bulb]
umbilical cord "The connecting cord from the developing embryo to the placenta." [ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MP:0001725, PMID:9144284, Wikipedia:Umbilical_cord]
corpus callosum "White matter structure containing massive numbers of commissural fibers connecting cortical areas in the two cerebral is subdivided into a genu, a rostrum, a body, and a splenium. (MM)." [BIRNLEX:1087]
descending thoracic aorta "The part of the aorta that extends from the arch of the aorta to the diaphragm, and from which arises numerous branches that supply oxygenated blood to the chest cage and the organs within the chest." [MP:0009868]
myocardium "The middle layer of the heart, comprised mainly of striated cardiac muscle fibers." [ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MP:0005329]
peritoneum "A serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity[VHOG,modified]." [VHOG:0001257]
prostate gland "The prostate gland is a partly muscular, partly glandular body that is situated near the base of the mammalian male urethra and secretes an alkaline viscid fluid which is a major constituent of the ejaculatory fluid." [GO:0030850, Wikipedia:Prostate]
adrenal gland "Either of a pair of complex endocrine organs near the anterior medial border of the kidney consisting of a mesodermal cortex that produces glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and androgenic hormones and an ectodermal medulla that produces epinephrine and norepinephrine[BTO]." [BTO:0000047, Wikipedia:Adrenal_gland]
thymus "Anatomical structure of largely lymphoid tissue that functions in cell-mediated immunity by being the site where T cells develop." [NLM:thymus, Wikipedia:Thymus]
bone marrow "The soft tissue that fills the cavities of bones." [MGI:cwg, MP:0002397]
tonsil "Either of the two small almond-shaped masses of lymph tissue found on either side of the oropharynx." [MGI:cwg, MP:0002380]
connective tissue "Tissue with cells that deposit non-polarized extracellular matrix including connective tissue fibers and ground substance." [GO_REF:0000034,,, PSPUB:0000170, VSAO:0000017]
muscle tissue "Muscle tissue is a contractile tissue made up of actin and myosin fibers[GO]." [GO:0060537,, Wikipedia:Muscle_tissue]
parietal pleura "The outer serous membrane of the pulmonary pleural." [UBERON:cjm, Wikipedia:Pulmonary_pleurae]
visceral pleura "The inner serous membrane of the pulmonary pleural. The visceral pleura lines the lungs." [UBERON:cjm, Wikipedia:Pulmonary_pleurae]
pericardium "The combination of pericardial sac (a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels) plus fibrous pericardium." [, Wikipedia:Pericardium]
cartilage tissue "Skeletal tissue that is avascular, rich in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and typically includes chondrocytes within isolated lacunae. Cartilage tissue is deposited by chondroblasts." [GO_REF:0000034,,,, PSPUB:0000170, VSAO:0000040]
primary visual cortex "The visual area of the brain that is specialized for processing information about static and moving objects. The primary visual cortex, which is defined by its function or stage in the visual system, is approximately equivalent to the striate cortex, also known as Brodmann area 17, which is defined by its anatomical location." [WikipediaVersioned:Visual_cortex&oldid=1069729211]
decidua "The maternal uterine-derived portion of the placenta." [MP:0004256, PMID:11433360]
esophagus mucosa "A mucosa that is part of a esophagus [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
lateral globus pallidus "The more lateral of the two segments of the globus pallidus, abutting the putamen." [BIRNLEX:1610]
medial globus pallidus "The more medial segment of the globus pallidus." [BIRNLEX:1555]
trabecular bone tissue "Bone tissue that has a lattice-like or spongy structure; it is highly vascular and contains intercommunicating spaces filled with bone marrow." [ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MGI:csmith, MP:0000130]
postcentral gyrus "Component of the parietal lobe. The appearance and disappearance of the central sulcus were the rostral and caudal boundaries of the postcentral gyrus respectively. The medial and lateral boundaries were the lateral bank of the precentral gyrus and the lateral fissure and/or the medial bank of the superior parietal gyrus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine)." [BIRNLEX:1070]
superior frontal gyrus "Component of the frontal lobe, lateral aspect. The rostral boundary is the first appearance of the superior frontal sulcus whereas the caudal boundary is the midpoint of the paracentral sulcus on the 'inflated' surface. The medial and lateral boundaries are the medial aspect of the frontal lobe and the superior frontal sulcus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine)." [BIRNLEX:1303]
ventral tegmental area "Unpaired midbrain region situated in the ventromedial portion of the reticular formation. The VTA is medial to the substantia nigra and ventral to the red nucleus, and extends caudally from the posterior hypothalamus in the diencephalon. The VTA contains dopamine neurons that project to various limbic and cortical areas and is a critical component of the brain's reward circuitry." [BIRNLEX:1415]
middle frontal gyrus "Component of the frontal lobe, lateral aspect (Christine Fennema-Notestine)." [BIRNLEX:1451]
entorhinal cortex "Component of the temporal lobe on the mesial surface. The rostral and caudal boundaries of the entorhinal cortex are the rostral end of the collateral sulcus and the caudal end of the amygdala respectively. The medial boundary is the medial aspect of the temporal lobe and the lateral boundary is the collateral sulcus. (DK)." [BIRNLEX:1508, Wikipedia:Entorhinal_cortex]
lateral nuclear group of thalamus "The lateral nuclear group is a collection of nuclei on the lateral side of the thalamus. According to MeSH, it consists of the following: lateral dorsal nucleus lateral posterior nucleus pulvinar [WP,unvetted]." [Wikipedia:Lateral_nuclear_group]
middle temporal gyrus "Component of the temporal lobe, lateral aspect. The rostral boundary is the rostral extent of the superior temporal sulcus whereas the caudal boundary is the temporo-occipital incisure on the cortical surface. The superior temporal sulcus is the medial boundary and the inferior temporal sulcus is the lateral boundary (Christine Fennema-Notestine)." [BIRNLEX:1653]
frontal pole "Component of the frontal lobe. The rostral and caudal boundaries of the frontal pole are the superior frontal gyrus and the rostral division of the middle frontal gyrus respectively (Christine Fennama-Notestine)." [BIRNLEX:1716]
right frontal lobe "A frontal cortex that is part of a right cerebral hemisphere." [OBOL:automatic]
dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve "A cranial nerve nucleus for the vagus nerve in the medulla that lies under the floor of the fourth ventricle. It mostly serves parasympathetic vagal functions in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and other thoracic and abdominal vagal innervations. The cell bodies for the preganglionic parasympathetic vagal neurons that innervate the heart reside in the nucleus ambiguus.[WP,unvetted]." [Wikipedia:Dorsal_nucleus_of_vagus_nerve]
cingulate cortex "The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex. It is extended from the corpus callosum below to the cingulate sulcus above, at least anteriorly. [WP,unvetted]." [Wikipedia:Cingulate_cortex]
ventricular zone "Proliferative region that is part of the ventricular system." [ZFA:0001083]
trachea "The trachea is the portion of the airway that attaches to the bronchi as it branches [GO:dph]." [GO:0060438, Wikipedia:Vertebrate_trachea]
epithelium of mammary gland "The epithelial layer of the luminal surfaces of the mammary gland." [MGI:csmith, MP:0009504]
cardiac muscle of right atrium "A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a right atrium [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
small intestine Peyer's patch "Nodular lymphoid structures on the serosal surface of the small intestine." []
calcaneal tendon "The Achilles tendon is a tendon of the posterior leg. It serves to attach the plantaris, gastrocnemius (calf) and soleus muscles to the calcaneus (heel) bone." [Wikipedia:Achilles_tendon]
mouth mucosa "A mucous membrane that lines the mouth." []
CA1 field of hippocampus "Part of hippocampus proper bounded by CA2 and the subiculum, characterized by pyramidal neurons that receive projections from pyramidal neurons of CA3 via the Schaffer collaterals." [BIRNLEX:1197]
fallopian tube "Initial section of the oviduct through which the ova pass from the ovary to the uterus." [, MGI:smb, MP:0003574]
choroid plexus epithelium "The epithelial component of the choroid plexus. Consists of cuboidal epithelial cells surrounding a core of capillaries and loose connective tissue." [UBERON:cjm, Wikipedia:Choroid_plexus]
ganglionic eminence "The transient proliferative population of neurons that expands exponentially during late prenatal development; it is a continuous germinal zone distinct from the ventricular zone that surrounds the brain ventricles[MP]." [MP:0004274]
vena cava "Any of the veins that carries deoxygenated blood from a part of the body into the right atrium of the heart." [, Wikipedia:Venae_cavae]
orbitofrontal cortex "The region of the cerebral cortex covering the basal surface of the frontal lobes; this region normally controls emotion and decision making." [GO:0021769, MGI:csmith, MP:0004170]
hindlimb stylopod muscle "Any muscle organ that is part of a hindlimb stylopod (upper leg)[Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
upper leg skin "A zone of skin that is part of a hindlimb stylopod [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
upper arm skin "A zone of skin that is part of a forelimb stylopod [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
caput epididymis "The head of the epididymis." [MP:0002660]
corpus epididymis "The body of the epididymis." [MP:0002661]
cauda epididymis "The tail of the epididymis." [MP:0002662]
pharyngeal arch 1 "The first of the series of pharyngeal arches that develop into jaw bones or their homologs, and their associated nerves and arteries." []
skeletal muscle tissue of biceps brachii "A portion of skeletal muscle tissue that is part of a biceps brachii [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
skeletal muscle tissue of rectus abdominis "A portion of skeletal muscle tissue that is part of a rectus abdominis [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
left testis "A testis that is in the left side of the genitalia [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
right testis "A testis that is in the right side of the genitalia [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
cerebellar vermis "A subregion of the cerebellar cortex, consisting of the most medial zone of the cerebellar cortex, stradding the midline. May be continuous with the lateral cerebellar hemispheres in some areas of the cerebellum, e.g., dorsally, or separated by deeper fissures in others (e.g., ventrally)." [BIRNLEX:1106]
metanephric glomerulus "Glomerulus of the mature vertebrate kidney, or metanephros." [GO:0072224]
blood vessel layer "Any of the tissue layers that comprise a blood vessel. Examples: tunica media, tunica adventitia." []
cervix epithelium "An epithelium that is part of a uterine cervix [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
oviduct epithelium "An epithelium that is part of a oviduct [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
endometrium epithelium "An epithelium that is part of an endometrium [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
kidney epithelium "The cellular avascular layer of the kidney luminar surfaces." [MGI:csmith, MP:0004967]
neuron projection bundle connecting eye with brain "A neuron projection bundle that connects the retina or its analog in the eye with the brain. This includes the vertebrate optic nerve (not truly a nerve) as well as analogous structures such as the Bolwig nerve in Drosophila." []
mucosa of transverse colon "A mucosa that is part of a transverse colon [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
mucosa of sigmoid colon "A mucosa that is part of a sigmoid colon [Automatically generated definition]." [OBOL:automatic]
mucosa of paranasal sinus "A mucosa that adjacent_to a paranasal sinus." [OBOL:automatic]
thoracic mammary gland "A lactiferous gland that is located in the thoracic region/breast." [, Wikipedia:Mammary_gland#Other_mammals]
cortical plate "The outer neural tube region in which post-mitotic neuroblasts migrate along radial glia to form the adult cortical layers[MP]." [, MP:0008439]
inferior vagus X ganglion "The large group of sensory neuron cell bodies, anterior to the jugular vein, associated with the vagus nerve (tenth cranial nerve)." [ISBN:0-683-40008-8, MP:0001087, PMID:9362461]
nasal cavity epithelium "An epithelium that lines the nasal cavity." []
olfactory segment of nasal mucosa "That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory endings for olfaction; the organ of smell[MESH]." [MESH:A04.531.520.573, Wikipedia:Olfactory_mucosa]
greater omentum "The greater omentum (also the great omentum, omentum majus, gastrocolic omentum, epiploön, or, especially in animals, caul) is a large fold of peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach, and extends from the stomach to the posterior abdominal wall after associating with the transverse colon." [Wikipedia:Greater_omentum]
eye trabecular meshwork "A pore-like structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber of the eye through which aqueous humor circulates[MP]." [MP:0005203, Wikipedia:Trabecular_meshwork]
C1 segment of cervical spinal cord "The segment of the spinal cord that corresponds to the first cervical vertebra in most mammals." [, PMID:19876658]
Brodmann (1909) area 46 "Brodmann area 46, or BA46, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. It is between BA10 and BA45. BA46 is known as middle frontal area 46. In the human it occupies approximately the middle third of the middle frontal gyrus and the most rostral portion of the inferior frontal gyrus. Brodmann area 46 roughly corresponds with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), although the borders of area 46 are based on cytoarchitecture rather than function. The DLPFC also encompasses part of granular frontal area 9, directly adjacent on the dorsal surface of the cortex. Cytoarchitecturally, BA46 is bounded dorsally by the granular frontal area 9, rostroventrally by the frontopolar area 10 and caudally by the triangular area 45 (Brodmann-1909). There is some discrepancy between the extent of BA8 (Brodmann-1905) and the same area as described by Walker (1940)." [Wikipedia:Brodmann_area_46]
left ventricle myocardium "A myocardium that is part of a left ventricle of a heart." []
right atrium auricular region "A small conical muscular pouch attached to the right atrium of the heart." [Wikipedia:Right_atrial_appendage]
squamous epithelium "An epithelium characterised by its most superficial layer consisting of squamous epithelial cells." [Wikipedia:Squamous_epithelium]
tongue squamous epithelium "A squamous epithelium that is part of a tongue." [OBOL:automatic]
esophagus squamous epithelium "A squamous epithelium that is part of a esophagus." [OBOL:automatic]
cervix squamous epithelium "The squamous epithelium of the cervical portio is similar to that of the vagina, except that it is generally smooth and lacks rete pegs. Colposcopically, it appears featureless except for a fine network of vessels which is sometimes visible. The relative opacity and pale pink coloration of the squamous epithelium derives from its multi-layered histology and the location of its supporting vessels below the basement membrane." []
adult organism "A multicellular organism that existence_ends_with a post-juvenile adult stage and existence_starts_with a post-juvenile adult stage." [OBOL:automatic]
superior vestibular nucleus "The superior vestibular nucleus is the dorso-lateral part of the vestibular nucleus and receives collaterals and terminals from the ascending branches of the vestibular nerve. Its axons terminate in much the same manner as do those from the lateral nucleus." [Wikipedia:Superior_vestibular_nucleus]
presumptive hindbrain "The rhombencephalon (or hindbrain) is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates. The rhombencephalon can be subdivided in a variable number of transversal swellings called rhombomeres. In the human embryo eight rhombomeres can be distinguished, from caudal to rostral: Rh7-Rh1 and the isthmus (the most rostral rhombomere). A rare disease of the rhombencephalon, 'rhombencephalosynapsis' is characterized by a missing vermis resulting in a fused cerebellum. Patients generally present with cerebellar ataxia. The caudal rhombencephalon has been generally considered as the initiation site for neural tube closure." [Wikipedia:Rhombencephalon]
saphenous vein "Either of two main superficial veins of the leg, one larger than the other, that begin at the foot." [BTO:0001808]
superior surface of tongue "The upper (superior) side of the tongue." []
tibial artery "The anterior and posterior arteries created at the bifurcation of the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle and lies along the tibia at the distal part of the leg to surface superficially anterior to the ankle joint. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg, ankle, and pes. The posterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, lies behind the tibia in the lower part of its course, and is found situated between the medial malleolus and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg and foot." [MESH:A07.231.114.895]
layer of synovial tissue "A thin, loose vascular connective tissue that makes up the membranes surrounding joints and the sheaths protecting tendons (particularly flexor tendons in the hands and feet) where they pass over bony prominences. Synovial tissue contains synovial cells, which secrete a viscous liquid called synovial fluid; this liquid contains protein and hyaluronic acid and serves as a lubricant and nutrient for the joint cartilage surfaces[BTO]. Synovial tissue can be found in tendons (tissues that connect muscle to bone), bursae (fluid-filled, cushioning sacs found in spaces between tendons, ligaments, and bones), and the cavity (hollow enclosed area) that separates the bones of a freely movable joint, such as the knee or elbow[BTO]." [BTO:0001338,]
adipose tissue of abdominal region "Adipose tissue that is located in the abdominal region. This includes any subcutaneous fat, visceral fat or encapsulated adipose tissue depots." [CALOHA:paula,,, MGI:csmith]
craniocervical region "The anteriormost subdivision of the body that includes the head, jaws, pharyngeal region and the neck (if present). In vertebrates this is the subdivision that includes the cervical vertebrae." []
tendon of biceps brachii "A tendon that attaches_to a biceps brachii." [OBOL:automatic]
periodontal ligament "The fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the root of a tooth, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone. It extends from the base of the gingival mucosa to the fundus of the bony socket, and its main function is to hold the tooth in its socket[BTO]." [BTO:0001020,,, Wikipedia:Periodontal_fiber]
upper lobe of lung "A lobe of the lung that is closest to the head." []
lower lobe of lung "The bottom most subdivision of either the right or left lung." [ncithesaurus:Lung_Lower_Lobe]
upper lobe of left lung "The lobe of the left lung that is closest to the head." []
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex "The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC or DLPFC), according to a more restricted definition, is roughly equivalent to Brodmann areas 9 and 46.[1] According to a broader definition DL-PFC consists of the lateral portions of Brodmann areas 9 - 12, of areas 45, 46, and the superior part of area 47.[2] These regions mainly receive their blood supply from the middle cerebral artery. With respect to neurotransmitter systems, there is evidence that dopamine plays a particularly important role in DL-PFC.[2]DL-PFC is connected to the orbitofrontal cortex, and to a variety of brain areas, which include the thalamus, parts of the basal ganglia (the dorsal caudate nucleus), the hippocampus, and primary and secondary association areas of neocortex, including posterior temporal, parietal, and occipital areas." [Wikipedia:Dorsolateral_prefrontal_cortex]
anterior cingulate cortex "The frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a collar form around the corpus callosum. It includes both the ventral and dorsal areas of the cingulate cortex. Wikipedia:File:Gray727.svg." [BIRNLEX:936]
body of uterus "The part of the uterus above the isthmus and below the orifices of the uterine tubes." []
omental fat pad "Encapsulated adipose tissue associated with the fold of peritoneal tissue that extends from the stomach to the posterior abdominal wall after associating with the transverse colon." [MP:MP]
metanephros cortex "The metanephric cortex is the outer region of the metanephros[GO]." [GO:0072214]
body of tongue "The oral part of the tongue anterior to the terminal sulcus." []
ectocervix "The part of the cervix uteri that protrudes into the vagina and is lined with stratified squamous epithelium." [BTO:0001850, Wikipedia:Vaginal_portion_of_cervix]
lower esophagus "The lower one third of the esophagus in which the muscle layer is composed of muscle cells predominantly of the smooth type." [ncithesaurus:Lower_Third_of_the_Esophagus]
Brodmann (1909) area 9
Brodmann (1909) area 10 "Brodmann area 10, or BA10, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. BA10 encompasses the most anterior part of the frontal cortex, known as the frontopolar region. This area is believed to play a part in strategic processes involved in memory retrieval and executive function. This area is also called frontopolar area 10, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined frontal region of cerebral cortex. It occupies the most rostral portions of the superior frontal gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus. In humans, on the medial aspect of the hemisphere it is bounded ventrally by the superior rostral sulcus (H). It does not extend as far as the cingulate sulcus. Cytoarchitecturally it is bounded dorsally by the granular frontal area 9, caudally by the middle frontal area 46, and ventrally by the orbital area 47 and by the rostral area 12 or, in an early version of Brodmann's cortical map (Brodmann-1909), the prefrontal Brodmann area 11-1909." [Wikipedia:Brodmann_area_10]
Brodmann (1909) area 23 "The term area 23 of Brodmann-1909 refers to a subdivision of the cerebral cortex of the guenon defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. Brodmann regarded it as topographically and cytoarchitecturally homologous to the combined ventral posterior cingulate area 23 and dorsal posterior cingulate area 31 of the human (Brodmann-1909). Distinctive Features (Brodmann-1905): the cortex is relatively thin; smaller cells predominate; the cell density of the multiform layer (VI) is great, producing a distinct boundary with the subcortical white matter; the internal granular layer (IV) is rather well developed; the internal pyramidal layer (V) contains a dense population of round, medium-sized ganglion cells concentrated at the border with layer IV; layers V and VI are narrow with a distinct mutual boundary.nn* Definition Source NeuroNames." [BIRNLEX:1754]
right hemisphere of cerebellum "A cerebellar hemisphere that is in_the_right_side_of a cerebellum." [OBOL:automatic]
skeletal muscle organ, vertebrate "A muscle organ that consists of skeletal muscle tissue ensheathed in epimysium, that develops from myotome and that is innervated by some somatic motor neuron. Skeletal muscles are typically attached (via a tendon) to a bone but there are exceptions (e.g. intrinsic tongue muscles)." [GOC:dos]
sural nerve "The sural nerve (short saphenous nerve), formed by the junction of the medial sural cutaneous with the peroneal anastomotic branch of the lateral sural cutaneous nerve, passes downward near the lateral margin of the tendo calcaneus, lying close to the small saphenous vein, to the interval between the lateral malleolus and the calcaneus. It runs forward below the lateral malleolus, and is continued as the lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve along the lateral side of the foot and little toe (via a dorsal digital nerve), communicating on the dorsum of the foot with the intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve, a branch of the superficial peroneal. In the leg, its branches communicate with those of the posterior femoral cutaneous." [Wikipedia:Sural_nerve]
frontal lobe "Frontal lobe is the anterior-most of five lobes of the cerebral hemisphere. It is bounded by the central sulcus on its posterior border and by the longitudinal cerebral fissure on its medial border." [FMA:61824]
adrenal tissue "Tissue that is part of some adrenal gland." [PHENOSCAPE:Alex]
muscle layer of sigmoid colon "A muscle layer that is part of the sigmoid colon." []
left adrenal gland cortex "The thick outer layer of the adrenal gland that is in the left side of the abdomen." []
right adrenal gland cortex "The thick outer layer of the adrenal gland that is in the right side of the abdomen." []
lower esophagus muscularis layer
lower esophagus mucosa
esophagogastric junction muscularis propria "Muscularis propria from the lowest portion of the esophagus, just proximal to the stomach." []